Republic Countries 2022

Rather than governing directly, citizens in a republic entrust their authority to elected officials who represent their best interests and those of the people as a whole.

The Latin phrase res public, which means public things, public matters, or public affairs, is the origin of the word republic. Rather than being a luxury reserved for a select few, the government in republics is seen as the responsibility and right of the whole populace.

Republicans are a political party in the United States and other nations where the term Republican is used officially. A republican government is elected by the people, whereas members of the Republican Party control a Republican government.

Republic Countries 2022

There are three types of democracies: republic, representative, and direct.

Reputed democracies are also called republics. Direct democracies are those in which the state is run by the people rather than by elected officials.

A real direct democracy in which every individual voted on every government decision would be unfeasible, if not unworkable, in practice.

In addition, since most individuals lack the time to thoroughly research every option, most ballots would probably include a large proportion of poorly informed voters.

Every contemporary democratic state is a republic as a result of these issues. A dictatorship, monarchy, or authoritarian/totalitarian state in which decisions are decided by a small group of people—or even a single person—is considered the antithesis of both direct democracy and republics.

Most of the time, a republic consists of a single country. However, in certain circumstances, a republic is a union of smaller, sub-sovereign entities, sometimes referred to as a federation.

These states tend to lean Republican as well. According to Article III of the United States Constitution, every 50 states have a republican form of government.

One of the federations during this time was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the USSR, better known as the Soviet Union. Each of the country’s fifteen countries was a self-governing republic.

The origins of the United States

A republic refers to any state that was not a dictatorship before the 1600s. Although a republic may include democratic regimes, it can also include aristocracies, oligarchies, and monarchy.

In his Six Books of the Commonwealth, French philosopher Jean Bodin defined the republic in 1576. The sovereign authority governs the well-ordered affairs between several families and the matters that interest them all.

With increasing opposition to absolutist governments and many revolutions in the 17th century, the meaning and definition of a republic started shifting.

The American and French revolutions are two examples. As a result of these events, the word republic was coined to describe regimes in which the head of state is elected rather than inherited, as in a monarchy.

Republic Countries 2022

Are there any countries around the world that are republics?

The term republic appears in the official titles of 159 sovereign entities across the globe. For example, the nation we often refer to as South Korea is officially known as the Republic of Korea. Making a list of the nation’s republics is difficult.

This is partly owing to the generously wide current definition of a republic and partly because the word is sometimes used in the names of nations that have potentially twisted its meaning.

Another well-known case is the DPRK, renowned for its military dictatorship and totalitarian rule rather than its formal name, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

However, several of the world’s most notable actual republics, such as the US, Japan, and the United Kingdom, do not use the term republic in their titles.

Even without considering official designations, the line between what constitutes and what does not constitute a republic might be blurred at times. For example, Russia technically qualifies as a republic since its government is mostly made up of elected representatives.

There is a lot of proof that the present administration has a strong hand in the voting process, if not outright rigging the results. As a result, the integrity of the country’s elections is questioned, and the people’s representatives’ acts are questioned as to whether they represent the people.

It is unlawful for any political party other than the governing party to exist in countries like Cuba and China, which have instituted a one party system. Even if elections are conducted, only a small number of pre-selected candidates—often only one per position—can run.

Although the people elect the governing authorities, the people have no say in the process, undermining the republican ideals of representative government and usurping the people’s authority.

However, if not for a technicality, numerous more nations (mainly former British colonies) would be republics. Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom are examples of constitutional monarchies since they have a monarch in charge of the country.

Though there is a king and queen, the remainder of the government runs like a parliamentary republic, with the people picking the vast majority of their MPs in free and fair elections.

De jure and de facto are political words used to describe these situations. To put it another way, de jure describes the government as officially recognized by the law, but de facto describes how a government works.

When the de facto government is anything other than what the nation’s constitution declares, it’s not unusual for that country (or vice versa).

For this reason, it is crucial to note that a country’s constitutional status does not tell us anything about its amount of freedom or the quality of its elections, or government tyranny.

Presidential republics and parliamentary republics

Many nations around the globe have republic governments. However, the sort of republic they have varies. Presidential and parliamentary republics are the two most prevalent forms of republics. The structure and distribution of power are the main distinctions.

People elect a president under a president-elected system, where the executive arm of government functions.

There is a group of elected officials, which may or may not be referred to as a parliament, who elect a prime minister from among themselves to lead the executive branch in parliamentary republics.

These setups have many variants, including semi-presidential systems in which the president and prime minister share greater authority.

The United States of America is governed by the president’s office in a presidential republic. A federal constitutional democratic republic was established in the United States after its Revolutionary War, and subsequent independence from the British Empire was declared.

Every four years, the people of the United States above the age of 18 vote for a new President and other officials. Many countries, including the United States, are classified as hybrids, meaning they have a constitution that allows for republican and democratic forms of administration.

The United States has a republican form of governance founded on three fundamental principles:

  • Power and authority are not held by a superior authority but by the people themselves (king)
  • A written constitution protects people’s rights.
  • The authority to represent the people is granted to elected officials by popular vote, who are tasked with acting in the best interests of the people they represent. Even more importantly, all citizens should be helped by the country’s elected officials.

A parliamentary republic like Germany’s is another example of a republic. Still, its many branches are constructed significantly differently from those in the United States because of this kind of organization. In Germany, the government is seen as a federated democratic constitutional republic.

Also See: Rebelling Countries 2022

Protecting people’s freedoms and civil rights is a top priority in Germany’s constitution. Elections in Germany must be universal, direct, free, equal, and secret (Article 38 of the German Basic Law).

Every four years, Germans go to the polls to elect members of the Bundestag, the country’s federal parliament.

Republic Countries 2022

Republic-governed countries

Countries that are presidential republics include, but are not limited to: Angola, Argentina, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Liberia, Malawi, Maldives, Mexico, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Korea, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Semi-presidential republics include, but are not limited to, the following countries: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Congo (Republic of the), East Timor, Egypt, France, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, So Tomé and Principe, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tunisia, and Ukraine.

Countries that fall under the category of parliamentary republics include but are not limited to Albania; Armenia; Austria; Bangladesh; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Dominica; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Guyana; India; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Kosovo; Latvia; Lebanon; Mauritius; Micronesia; Moldova; Montenegro; Nauru; Pakistan; Samoa; and the Marshall Islands.

Antigua and Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Cambodia; Canada; Cook Islands; Denmark; Grenada; Japan; Lesotho; Luxembourg; Malaysia; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Niue; Norway; Papua New Guinea; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Solomon Islands; Spain; Sweden; Thailand; Tuvalu; and the United Kingdom are constitutional monarchies that operate primarily as republics.

CountryOfficial NameRepublic in TitleGov't. Type
ChinaPeople's Republic of ChinaYesRepublic - One-Party State
IndiaRepublic of IndiaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
United StatesUnited States of AmericaNoRepublic - Presidential
IndonesiaRepublic of IndonesiaYesRepublic - Presidential
PakistanIslamic Republic of PakistanYesRepublic - Parliamentary
NigeriaFederal Republic of NigeriaYesRepublic - Presidential
BrazilFederative Republic of BrazilYesRepublic - Presidential
BangladeshPeople's Republic of BangladeshYesRepublic - Parliamentary
RussiaRussian FederationNoRepublic - Semi-Presidential
MexicoUnited Mexican StatesNoRepublic - Presidential
JapanJapanNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
EthiopiaFederal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
PhilippinesRepublic of the PhilippinesYesRepublic - Presidential
EgyptArab Republic of EgyptYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
DR CongoDemocratic Republic of the CongoYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
VietnamSocialist Republic of VietnamYesRepublic - One-Party State
IranIslamic Republic of IranYesRepublic - Presidential
TurkeyRepublic of TurkeyYesRepublic - Presidential
GermanyFederal Republic of GermanyYesRepublic - Parliamentary
ThailandKingdom of ThailandNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
United KingdomUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
TanzaniaUnited Republic of TanzaniaYesRepublic - Presidential
FranceFrench RepublicYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
South AfricaRepublic of South AfricaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
ItalyItalian RepublicYesRepublic - Parliamentary
MyanmarRepublic of the Union of MyanmarYesProvisional
KenyaRepublic of KenyaYesRepublic - Presidential
ColombiaRepublic of ColombiaYesRepublic - Presidential
South KoreaRepublic of KoreaYesRepublic - Presidential
SpainKingdom of SpainNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
UgandaRepublic of UgandaYesRepublic - Presidential
SudanRepublic of the SudanYesProvisional
ArgentinaArgentine RepublicYesRepublic - Presidential
AlgeriaPeople's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
IraqRepublic of IraqYesRepublic - Parliamentary
AfghanistanIslamic Emirate of Afghanistan (formerly Islamic Republic of Afghanistan)NoProvisional
PolandRepublic of PolandYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
UkraineUkraineNoRepublic - Semi-Presidential
CanadaCanadaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
MoroccoKingdom of MoroccoNoConstitutional Monarchy
Saudi ArabiaKingdom of Saudi ArabiaNoAbsolute Monarchy
AngolaRepublic of AngolaYesRepublic - Presidential
UzbekistanRepublic of UzbekistanYesRepublic - Presidential
PeruRepublic of PeruYesRepublic - Presidential
MalaysiaMalaysiaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
YemenRepublic of YemenYesProvisional
GhanaRepublic of GhanaYesRepublic - Presidential
MozambiqueRepublic of MozambiqueYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
NepalFederal Democratic Republic of NepalYesRepublic - Parliamentary
MadagascarRepublic of MadagascarYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
VenezuelaBolivarian Republic of VenezuelaYesRepublic - Presidential
Ivory CoastRepublic of the Côte d'IvoireYesRepublic - Presidential
CameroonRepublic of CameroonYesRepublic - Presidential
NigerRepublic of the NigerYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
AustraliaCommonwealth of AustraliaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
North KoreaDemocratic People's Republic of KoreaYesRepublic - One-Party State
TaiwanRepublic of ChinaYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
Burkina FasoBurkina FasoNoRepublic - Semi-Presidential
MaliRepublic of MaliYesProvisional
SyriaSyrian Arab RepublicYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
Sri LankaDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri LankaYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
MalawiRepublic of MalawiYesRepublic - Presidential
ZambiaRepublic of ZambiaYesRepublic - Presidential
RomaniaRomaniaNoRepublic - Semi-Presidential
ChileRepublic of ChileYesRepublic - Presidential
KazakhstanRepublic of KazakhstanYesRepublic - Presidential
EcuadorRepublic of EcuadorYesRepublic - Presidential
GuatemalaRepublic of GuatemalaYesRepublic - Presidential
ChadRepublic of ChadYesProvisional
SomaliaFederal Republic of SomaliaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
NetherlandsNetherlandsNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
SenegalRepublic of SenegalYesRepublic - Presidential
CambodiaKingdom of CambodiaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
ZimbabweRepublic of ZimbabweYesRepublic - Presidential
GuineaRepublic of GuineaYesProvisional
RwandaRepublic of RwandaYesRepublic - Presidential
BeninRepublic of BeninYesRepublic - Presidential
BurundiRepublic of BurundiYesRepublic - Presidential
TunisiaRepublic of TunisiaYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
BoliviaPlurinational State of BoliviaNoRepublic - Presidential
BelgiumKingdom of BelgiumNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
HaitiRepublic of HaitiYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
JordanHashemite Kingdom of JordanNoConstitutional Monarchy
Dominican RepublicDomincan RepublicYesRepublic - Presidential
CubaRepublic of CubaYesRepublic - One-Party State
South SudanRepublic of South SudanYesRepublic - Presidential
SwedenKingdom of SwedenNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
Czech RepublicCzech RepublicYesRepublic - Parliamentary
HondurasRepublic of HondurasYesRepublic - Presidential
GreeceHellenic RepublicYesRepublic - Parliamentary
AzerbaijanRepublic of AzerbaijanYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
PortugalPortuguese RepublicYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
Papua New GuineaIndependent State of Papua New GuineaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
HungaryHungaryNoRepublic - Parliamentary
TajikistanRepublic of TajikstanYesRepublic - Presidential
BelarusRepublic of BelarusYesRepublic - Presidential
United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab EmiratesNoConstitutional Monarchy
IsraelState of IsraelNoRepublic - Parliamentary
AustriaRepublic of AustriaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
TogoTogolese RepublicYesRepublic - Presidential
SwitzerlandSwiss ConfederationNoRepublic - Parliamentary
Sierra LeoneRepublic of Sierra LeoneYesRepublic - Presidential
LaosLao People's Democratic RepublicYesRepublic - One-Party State
SerbiaRepublic of SerbiaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
NicaraguaRepublic of NicaraguaYesRepublic - Presidential
LibyaState of LibyaNoProvisional
BulgariaRepublic of BulgariaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
ParaguayRepublic of ParaguayYesRepublic - Presidential
KyrgyzstanKyrgyz RepublicYesRepublic - Presidential
TurkmenistanTurkmenistanNoRepublic - Presidential
El SalvadorRepublic of El SalvadorYesRepublic - Presidential
SingaporeRepublic of SingaporeYesRepublic - Parliamentary
Republic of the CongoRepublic of the CongoYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
DenmarkDenmarkNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
SlovakiaSlovak RepublicYesRepublic - Parliamentary
Central African RepublicCentral African RepublicYesRepublic - Presidential
FinlandRepublic of FinlandYesRepublic - Parliamentary
LebanonRepublic of LebanonYesRepublic - Parliamentary
NorwayKingdom of NorwayYesRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
LiberiaRepublic of LiberiaYesRepublic - Presidential
PalestineState of PalestineNoRepublic - Semi-Presidential
New ZealandNew ZealandNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
Costa RicaRepublic of Costa RicaYesRepublic - Presidential
IrelandRepublic of IrelandYesRepublic - Parliamentary
MauritaniaIslamic Republic of MauritaniaYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
OmanSultanate of OmanNoAbsolute Monarchy
PanamaRepublic of PanamaYesRepublic - Presidential
KuwaitState of KuwaitNoConstitutional Monarchy
CroatiaRepublic of CroatiaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
GeorgiaGeorgiaNoRepublic - Parliamentary
EritreaState of EritreaNoRepublic - One-Party State
UruguayOriental Republic of UruguayYesRepublic - Presidential
MongoliaMongoliaNoRepublic - Semi-Presidential
MoldovaRepublic of MoldovaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaNoRepublic - Parliamentary
AlbaniaRepublic of AlbaniaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
JamaicaJamaicaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
ArmeniaRepublic of ArmeniaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
LithuaniaRepublic of LithuaniaYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
GambiaRepublic of the GambiaYesRepublic - Presidential
QatarState of QatarNoConstitutional Monarchy
BotswanaRepublic of BotswanaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
NamibiaRepublic of NamibiaYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
GabonGabonese RepublicYesRepublic - Presidential
LesothoKingdom of LesothoNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
SloveniaRepublic of SloveniaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
Guinea-BissauRepublic of Guinea-BisseauYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
North MacedoniaRepublic of North MacedoniaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
LatviaRepublic of LatviaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
Equatorial GuineaRepublic of Equatorial GuineaYesRepublic - Presidential
Trinidad and TobagoRepublic of Trinidad and TobagoYesRepublic - Parliamentary
BahrainKingdom of BahrainNoConstitutional Monarchy
Timor-LesteDemocratic Republic of Timor-LesteYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
EstoniaRepublic of EstoniaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
MauritiusRepublic of MauritiusYesRepublic - Parliamentary
CyprusRepublic of CyprusYesRepublic - Presidential
EswatiniKingdom of EswatiniNoAbsolute Monarchy
DjiboutiRepublic of DjiboutiYesRepublic - Presidential
FijiRepublic of FijiYesRepublic - Parliamentary
ComorosUnion of the ComorosNoRepublic - Presidential
GuyanaCo-operative Republic of GuyanaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
BhutanKingdom of BhutanNoConstitutional Monarchy
Solomon IslandsSolomon IslandsNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
LuxembourgGrand Duchy of LuxembourgNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
MontenegroMontenegroNoRepublic - Parliamentary
SurinameRepublic of SurinameYesRepublic - Parliamentary
MaltaRepublic of MaltaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
MaldivesRepublic of MaldivesYesRepublic - Presidential
BahamasCommonwealth of the BahamasNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
BelizeBelizeNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
IcelandIcelandNoRepublic - Parliamentary
VanuatuRepublic of VanuatuYesRepublic - Parliamentary
BarbadosBarbadosNoRepublic - Parliamentary
Sao Tome and PrincipeDemocratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeYesRepublic - Semi-Presidential
SamoaIndependent State of SamoaNoRepublic - Parliamentary
Saint LuciaSaint LuciaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
KiribatiRepublic of KiribatiYesRepublic - Parliamentary
GrenadaGrenadaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
MicronesiaFederated States of MicronesiaNoRepublic - Parliamentary
SeychellesRepublic of SeychellesYesRepublic - Presidential
TongaKingdom of TongaNoConstitutional Monarchy
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
AndorraPrincipality of AndorraNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
DominicaRepublic of DominicaYesRepublic - Parliamentary
Saint Kitts and NevisFederation of Saint Christopher and NevisNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
Marshall IslandsRepublic of the Marshall IslandsYesRepublic - Parliamentary
LiechtensteinPrincipality of LiechtensteinNoConstitutional Monarchy
MonacoPrincipality of MonacoNoConstitutional Monarchy
San MarinoRepublic of San MarinoYesRepublic - Parliamentary
PalauRepublic of PalauYesRepublic - Presidential
NauruRepublic of NauruYesRepublic - Parliamentary
TuvaluTuvaluNoRepublic-type Constitutional Monarchy
Vatican CityVatican City StateNoAbsolute Monarchy

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