With Peru to the north and Argentina to the east, Chile is a country in South America that stretches along the Pacific Ocean. The Atacama Desert, the driest desert on the globe, is located in the northern part of the nation and is mineral-rich.
The Matorral ecoregion is one of Chile’s most well-known. An area that is mountainous, bushy, and covered with dense vegetation is referred to as a “matorral” in Spanish. Numerous unusual animals and birds as well as endangered plant species may be found in the Matorral ecoregion.
An intriguing geographic area that runs along Chile’s coastline is called the Matorral. It spans a region of over 57,300 square miles and has a breadth of about 100 kilometers. With frequent human activity influencing the ecology, the large area is seldom protected.
Constant fire breakouts, tree-cutting for lumber, mineral exploitation, and the dumping of garbage that causes pollution are some of the challenges to the ecoregion.
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The Regional Ecosystem
The region mostly has a Mediterranean climate, which means that extremely cold winters with heavy rainfall and very dry summers are common.
This provides the ideal climate for a variety of plant species to flourish, from shrubs and short forests like the cactus and soapbark trees in the north to extremely tall trees like the Espino and carob trees in the south.
The central region’s climate encourages the development of grazing grass. Despite having dense indigenous forests, they have been diminished due to human activities. Along the seaside, palm trees are also prevalent.
In the coastal mountains, there are fewer of the once-common Peumo and Boldo-based sclerophyll woods. The southern environment is home to the majority of biomes, which are collections of plants or animals with a shared set of characteristics.
The woodlands are home to rare bird species like the forecrown hummingbird. Adesina microphylla is a typical plant found along the shoreline. Despite growing up to 30 meters tall and being indigenous to the matorral area, Fuscospora Alessandrini plants are an endangered species as a result of wood extraction.
El Norte Chico is a semi-desert that sits between the Atacama Desert and the matorral. It is home to a variety of snake species and reptiles like the iguana. Additionally typical are wild creatures and reptiles including lizards, bats, and snakes.
The south coastline region has several canals, peninsulas, and large islands in addition to several volcanic mountains and lakes.
Population Change And The Matorral Ecoregion
The Matorral area has the majority of the largest cities. San Pedro de Atacama in the north and Santiago, Chile, are two examples.
This corresponds to a large population that has ruined the local environment to achieve its basic demands. Agricultural activities flourish in the valley in the center area, which is ideal for farming and cattle breeding.
The ecosystem has the special quality of having trees that are receptive to fire in the sense that fire provides a medium for seed dissemination, nutrients biodegradation, and removal of plant debris to allow new ones to develop.
However, this ecosystem is the most intriguing since it combines savannah grassland, coastal, highland, and semi-desert habitats. As a result, it sustains a diverse array of plants and animals with various adaptations.