Authoritarian and ultranationalist politics define Fascism as a movement of the extreme right. A single individual or party often rules fascist regimes as a one-party dictatorship.
With its emphasis on national riches and power above individual well-being, Fascism runs counter to democratic values that hold that government should serve the interests of its people as a whole.
Fascism, as a consequence, has extremely few, if any, individual human rights.
Fascist governments generally generate sharp class distinctions in society and the economy, and they often resort to using force to suppress dissent and maintain control over the populace. Totalitarian states include certain fascist regimes that go too far.
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The characteristics and beliefs of Fascism
A fundamental tenet of Fascism is that everyone should be devoted to and loyal to their nation.
Adolf Hitler, for example, gained the majority of Germans’ support after assuming power by promoting an ultra-nationalist agenda that said Germany was the finest country in the world (and the Aryan race was a superior master race).
Benito Mussolini of Italy, Juan Peron of Argentina, and Francisco Franco of Spain are some of the world’s most notable fascist presidents.
Fascist countries and movements vary widely from one to the next. Despite this, they share several other traits and their emotional nationalist sentiment. As a result, they are prepared to use violence to achieve their goals and believe that the government has more power than individuals.
They also reject democratic and liberal principles that suggest otherwise.
They believe the government has more power than individuals and is willing to use violence to achieve their goals.
Even in fascist countries, people’s rights to freedom of expression and the right to speak out against their leaders and countries are not honored. Fascism places a high value on companies, frequently widening the gap between government officials and the general population.
Fascist Leaders and Dictators Who Are Most Recognized:
With the help of their rhetoric and charm, fascist rulers often rise to power in fascist regimes. The following is a list of some instances however there are many more that might be considered:
- Adolf Hitler of Germany
- Benito Mussolini of Italy
- Fumimaro Konoye of Japan
- Engelbert Dollfuß of Austria
- Getúlio Vargas of Brazil
- Ante Pavelić of Croatia
- Pehr Evind Svinhufvud of Finland
- Philippe Pétain of France
- Ioannis Metaxas of Greece
- Ferenc Szálasi of Hungary
- Vidkun Quisling of Norway
- António de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal
- Ion Antonescu of Romania
- Jozef Tisoof Slovakia
- Francisco Franco of Spain
The global history of Fascism
From 1919 through 1945, Fascism conquered Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe. Benito Mussolini, the head of the National Fascist Party, took control of Italy in 1922 and ruled until his defeat in 1943 as the father of Fascism.
His authoritarian control over the Italian people did not sit well with other prominent National Front Party members (NFP) members. Those who backed him for over two decades throughout World War II finally granted him the vote of no confidence. After that, he was removed from office and sent to jail.
Even before he had consolidated power and established a centralized administration, Mussolini had already inspired various fascist organizations in Europe and the globe. This includes Adolf Hitler and Germany’s Nazi party, which was the movement that brought WWII in the first place.
As it turned out, Hitler was so enamored with Mussolini that they arranged to have him freed by Nazi soldiers. Mussolini became Hitler’s puppet dictator and promoted fascist ideals until he was arrested and murdered by firing squad on April 28th, 1945, per Hitler’s orders.
The most prominent period of Fascism ended two days after Hitler’s death.
A wide range of nations throughout the globe had been engulfed in fascist movements in the 1930s and early 1940s; these included the United States. Some may be surprised to learn that the United States had a fascist party, but Fascism was accepted by several pro-German groups in the late 1930s.
The Silver Legion of America nominated a fascist presidential candidate as a third-party candidate. The group’s activities were prohibited after Germany declared war on the United States in 1941. Other countries, though, clung to Fascism.
As late as the early 1970s, fascist movements in Portugal and Spain raged on, while South Africa was home to three fascist groups that lasted until the 1980s.
Fascism in the world today
No explicitly fascist parties will be in power in 2022, and there are presently no openly fascist political parties. Fascism, on the other hand, is not yet gone. Fascist Front National in France and the Danish People’s Party in Denmark received more than 25 percent of the vote in 2014.
As a result, organizations like the Patriot Front in the United States, Greece’s Golden Dawn party, or Hungary’s Jobbik remain prominent. Smaller fascist groups continue to exist today in dozens of nations.
While many current political parties and administrations eschew the fascist moniker while incorporating fascist principles into their platforms and campaigns, this is hardly the only example.
Racism is often at the root of rhetoric that recalls the glory days of an empire but blames its fall on the unjust enrichment of a few or rejects social programs because not all citizens deserve them.
It is also at the root of rhetoric that calls for the violent repression of civil liberties or individual rights of certain groups.
When it comes to defining Fascism, it might be tricky. This is due in part to the fact that it is often adapted to fulfill the political objectives of a certain fascist party and in part, since there are several varieties, many of which overlap and may even better fit into similar ideologies such as socialism.
Accordingly, there is a lot of disagreement as to whether governments are fascist and others, such as right-wing dictatorships and authoritarian rule, are comparable but do not adhere to the fascist ideology.
Most historians think the last truly fascist regimes to control Portugal and Spain were in place from 1933 to 1974 and 1936 to 1975, respectively. Both administrations were overthrown and replaced by democratic ones.
Also See: Eurozone Countries 2022
However, the dispute over whether contemporary nations like North Korea, Venezuela, Russia, and China should be classified as fascists continues.
Fascist governments have existed in 24 countries:
- Albania: 1939-1943; 1943-1944
- Austria: 1934-1938; 1938-1945
- Chile: 1932-1938
- China: 1932-1945
- Croatia: 1941-1945
- El Salvador: 1931-1944
- France: 1940-1944
- Germany: 1933-1945
- Haiti: 1957-1986
- Hungary 1932-1945
- Iran: 1975-1978 (disrupted)
- Italy: 1922-1945
- Japan: 1931-1945
- Lebanon: 1936-1990 (disputed)
- Netherlands: 1923-1945
- Norway: 1942-1945
- Philippines: 1942-1945
- Portugal: 1933-1974
- Romania: 1940-1944
- San Marino: 1923-1943; 1944-1945
- Slovakia: 1939-1945
- Spain: 1936-1975
- South Africa: 1924-1994 (disputed)
- Yugoslavia: 1935-1939; 1941-1945
Notably, fascist groups in these countries could temporarily take their respective countries’ power. Some fascist movements, however, have had a major influence on society and politics even if they did not achieve absolute power. The most notable ones have been included in the following table.
|Country||Ruling Power?||Years Active|
|Austria||Yes||1933-1938; 1938-1945 (German rule)|
|Lebanon||On occasion||1936-1990 (disputed)|
|San Marino||Yes||1923-1943; 1944-1945|
|South Africa||Yes||1924-1994 (disputed)|