The majority of Somalia enjoys a warm, dry climate, yet precipitation and wind may be very unpredictable in certain seasons of the year. Somalia’s closeness to the equator makes climate change uncommon.
In northern Somalia, a marine semi-desert with clumps of grass, shrubs, tiny bushes, and shallow waterways may be found. This area is a component of the ecology of Ethiopia’s xeric grasslands and shrublands.
Acacia trees and grassy clumps make up the vegetation in the northern, northeastern, and north-central regions. The Hobyo grasslands and shrublands’ habitat predominates along the Indian Ocean with scattered scrub, grass clumps, and coastal dunes.
From Kismaayo to the Kenyan border, the seashore is home to the East African mangroves. The Somalian ecosystems are briefly examined below.
Mangroves in East Africa
Mangrove swamps close to the beaches of East Africa’s Indian Ocean shorelines make up the ecoregion. Kenya, Tanzania, southern Somalia, and Mozambique all share the ecoregion.
These coastal regions go through two monsoon seasons every year, with Mozambique seeing rising seas and powerful ocean currents, and heavy rainfall in northern Tanzania and southern Kenya. The tropical and subtropical wet broadleaf forests biome includes the mangrove forests of East Africa.
Several towering trees in the environment may reach heights of 30 meters or more. On the coasts of Watamu and Lamu in Kenya, mangroves supplied by freshwater rivers and river inlets where salt accumulates make up the majority of the flora.
The mangroves are home to diverse wildlife, including Sykes monkeys and antelopes. Elephants and African buffalo may be seen grazing on the edges of the marsh as fish, crabs, and mollusks are found in the water.
In the marshes, hippopotamuses, green turtles, olive ridley turtles, and Hawksbill turtles forage for food. The environment supports a variety of plants and animals.
The corals provide crucial feeding grounds for migrating birds like the curlew sandpiper and little stint, waterbirds like the crab-plover, and seabirds like the roseate tern. The corals shield the environment from ocean tides and storms.
Xeric Grasslands and Shrublands of Ethiopia
In Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, the environment is a semi-desert region close to the Red Sea and along the Gulf of Aden.
The terrain is made up of hills and massifs that reach heights of 1300 meters as well as depressions caused by faults, such as the Danakil, which is 155 meters below sea level. The region has numerous earthquakes and active volcanoes due to its intense tectonic activity.
The climate in the ecoregion is hot and dry. The annual rainfall is around 100 to 200 millimeters, which is quite little. The ecoregion’s dominant plant is the dragon tree. The predominant wildlife includes the Somali Wild Ass, Dorcas gazelle, Beira, Beisa oryx, and gerenuk.
Geckos and other species of the dry environment are widespread. The largest threat to biodiversity and ecological viability is political instability.
The nomadic way of life also adds to environmental deterioration, and these countries’ governments have few regulations; Ethiopia is the only country in the region with environmental protections.
Inhambane-Northern Zanzibar Coastal Forest Mosaic
The environment is a component of the East African coast’s Somalia-boundary-forming tropical wet broadleaf forest biome. Swamps, woods, and savannas make up the environment.
The Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets are located north, and drier, open woods, and shrublands lie south and southwest. To the east is the Indian Ocean.
On the Island of Pemba, endemic bird species such as the Treron and Otus species may be found in the ecology. Some species can also be found on the Kenyan mainland along the Tana River and the remains of the coastal woods.
Somali Xeric Montane Woodlands
Throughout the Horn of Africa, this ecosystem exists. Plant species from the Macaronesian, Mediterranean and Afromontane areas are still present. The region in Somalia has the most rainfall.
The habitat’s wildlife and vegetation are mostly unaffected by human activity because of the far-off escarpments and plateaus, even though killing more giant animals have decreased their number. The pseuderemias lizard, spalerosophis, and Leptotyphlops snakes are indigenous reptiles to the region.
The North Somali Mountains are home to the Somali Pigeon and Thrush. Despite having a wider distribution than most animals, gazelles are negatively impacted by excessive shooting and cattle grazing. Most of Somalia’s ecosystem’s biological worth is unknown.
Accessibility and education in the nation are challenging due to years of political unrest. Due to climatic change, urbanization, civilization, and other human activities and natural phenomena, the information that is now available on the environment’s biodiversity is outdated and potentially unreliable.