HIV Rates by Country 2022

Antibodies that assist the body fight off infection are CD4 cells in HIV or human immunodeficiency virus. A fatal illness known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is possible if HIV progresses.

Most often, HIV is transmitted by unprotected intercourse (even during pregnancy and delivery), infected blood transfusions, or shared use of hypodermic needles.

HIV cannot be eliminated from the human body. As a result, a person will stay HIV-positive for the rest of their lives if they get the virus.

However, antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs may be used to manage and reduce the course of HIV. In Africa, where the virus is thought to have originated, the incidence of HIV infection varies greatly from country to country.

List of the 10 countries with the highest percentage of 2020 population HIV prevalence:

  1. Eswatini — 26.8%
  2. Lesotho — 21.1%
  3. Botswana — 19.9%
  4. South Africa — 19.1%
  5. Zimbabwe — 11.9%
  6. Namibia — 11.6%
  7. Mozambique — 11.5%
  8. Zambia — 11.1%
  9. Malawi — 8.1%
  10. Equatorial Guinea — 7.3%

*Top 10 Countries with the Most HIV Cases (2020):

  1. South Africa — 7,800,000
  2. India — 2,300,000
  3. Mozambique — 2,100,000
  4. Tanzania — 1,700,000
  5. Nigeria — 1,700,000
  6. Zambia — 1,500,000
  7. Uganda — 1,400,000
  8. Kenya — 1,400,000
  9. Zimbabwe — 1,300,000
  10. Russia — 1,000,000

Additional information may be found in the table that follows.

HIV Around the World

HIV is a global problem. In 2020, the WHO predicts that 37.7 million individuals (approximately 0.7 percent of the global population) will have HIV, including 1.5 million new cases.

More than 700,000 individuals died from HIV-related diseases (such as AIDS) in the same year that 73 percent of those cases were treated with ART.

Africa has the highest rate of HIV infection of any continent, with an estimated 3.9 percent of the population (ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 percent) testing positive.

Symbion immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been linked to HIV at least twice, most likely when human hunters came into touch with an infected primate’s blood and the virus mutated to become HIV.

In Cameroon, chimpanzees (of the Pan troglodytes subspecies) were the principal source of the HIV-1 strain. The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), which occurs in various nations along Africa’s west coast, has been identified as the source of the less virulent HIV-2 strain.

Since its appearance in the 1900s, researchers think that HIV originally moved across Africa before spreading to other parts of the globe and eventually making its way to the United States in the late 1970s.

The viral infection progresses via three distinct stages:

There are three main phases in the progression of HIV, with severity ranging from mild but treatable to fatal.

The first stage of HIV infection is known as acute HIV infection. Hosts may have flu-like symptoms when HIV cells proliferate fast and begin killing CD4 T lymphocyte cells. There is a considerable chance of spreading the disease via sexual interaction.

The second stage of HIV infection is known as chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency/dormancy). The number of people infected with HIV has declined, yet the problem persists.

Infected people may not show symptoms, and the danger of spreading the infection to others is quite low. Patients on treatment programs may have virus levels that are so low that they cannot be detected, virtually eliminating the possibility of transmission.

HIV infection progresses to the third and final stage, known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection in which the immune system no longer can fend off infection, develops when chronic HIV infection goes untreated for a lengthy time (many years or more).

The risk of spreading the disease to others rises precipitously, and death usually occurs within three years after infection.

Antiretroviral therapy and HIV treatment (ART)

It is possible to keep HIV patients healthy for many years by using antiretroviral treatment (ART) drugs, which may reduce the quantity of HIV in the body.

ART slows the virus’s development and limits the virus’s ability to spread to others. Most often, ART is administered by administering a tablet containing a mix of three or more drugs.

Patients are termed to be in viral suppression or viral load suppression if their viral loads fall below 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood. Some people manage to keep their HIV levels so low that they are undetectable by today’s testing.

Patients with HIV are in the best possible health when their viral load is undetectable. 72 percent of people diagnosed with HIV are now receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). There has been a remarkable increase in HIV testing and treatment coverage worldwide.

However, in many countries, HIV prevention and treatment are hampered by factors such as extreme poverty, gender inequality, and widespread HIV stigma and prejudice.

A coordinated and comprehensive worldwide effort to combat this epidemic, and UNAIDS is the major champion for that effort.

For the first time, UNAIDS has set a target of 90 percent of individuals living with HIV being identified, 90 percent being enrolled in treatment, and 90 percent having suppressed viral levels by 2020.

Some facts on HIV prevalence in high-risk countries, such as these:

1. Eswatini

Ezwatini, with a prevalence of approximately 27%, is the world’s most HIV-positive nation, according to the WHO. In Eswatini, HIV/AIDS is the main cause of mortality, which is maybe not unexpected.

Eswatini’s HIV rate, however, is decreasing. Between 2011 and 2016, the country’s incidence of new infections was cut in half because of the introduction of enhanced treatment and preventative programs.

It also climbed from 34.8 percent to 71.3 percent of adult HIV patients who received ART therapies. Even though Eswatini is grappling with a widespread HIV pandemic, individuals on the margins and in the criminal justice system are particularly hard hit.

For example, Eswatini has the world’s highest HIV prevalence rate of 60.5% among sex workers.

2. Lesotho

Lesotho, the second-highest HIV incidence in the world at 21.1 percent, is also the major cause of death in Lesotho. Approximately 280,000 persons in Lesotho are infected with HIV.

13,000 new HIV infections and 6,100 AIDS-related deaths occurred in the United States in 2018. In Lesotho, 71% of persons with HIV will be getting ART by 2020.

Lesotho has a life expectancy of 52 years for males and 56 years for women, resulting from the country’s high poverty rate of 57 percent. HIV/AIDS medication is sometimes difficult to get because of this.

3. Botswana

Botswana, with an estimated HIV prevalence of 19.9%, is the nation with the third-largest number of infected citizens. Gender discrimination, punitive policies targeting disadvantaged groups, and removing foreign support are just a few of the considerable obstacles faced by those living with HIV in Botswana.

However, the number of persons living with HIV is steadily decreasing, as in many other African countries.

Botswana provides free antiretroviral therapy to all persons living with HIV, thanks to the support of organizations like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV was lowered from 1.91 percent in 2000 to 1.91 percent in 2020 due to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

4. South Africa

South Africa has the fourth-highest HIV prevalence in the world, with a rate of 19.10 percent. The number of persons living with HIV in the nation is 7.8 million, which is greater than any other country and accounts for around one-fifth of all HIV infections worldwide.

According to government estimates, 68% of persons living with HIV will be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the United States by 2021, and 93% of those patients will have achieved viral load suppression.

Since the ART program began in 2010, the average South African’s life expectancy has risen from 56 to 63. HIV transmission from mother to child after delivery has decreased from 3.5 percent in 2010 to around 1 percent by 2021, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Girls and young women who are most likely to get pregnant are 2.5 times more likely to be infected with HIV than men of the same age.

5. Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe has a world-leading HIV prevalence rate of 11.9%. Zimbabwe has 1.3 million persons with HIV. In Zimbabwe, ART is available to 82% of adult males, 88% of women, and 78% of children living with HIV.

As a result of PMTCT services, the number of new HIV infections among children in Zimbabwe has decreased, and virtually every pregnant woman now has access to ART.

Adolescent girls and young women in Zimbabwe, as in South Africa, bear a disproportionate share of the burden of HIV infection.

HIV services in Zimbabwe are hampered by the fact that sex work and homosexuality are banned in the nation, making it harder for at-risk populations to get prevention and treatment.

6. Namibia

11.60 percent of Namibians have HIV, making it the sixth highest prevalence globally. In this nation, HIV/AIDS is the main cause of mortality.

200,000 Namibians have HIV, with roughly 6,100 persons contracting the disease so far this year. Almost all adults and children with HIV in the nation are getting antiretroviral therapy (ART).

An assessment conducted by NAMPHIA found that Namibia has met or surpassed several UNAIDS goals, including 90% testing, 90% treatment, and 90% viral suppression, as well as the country’s goal of achieving viral suppression by the end of 2015.

There has been a 50% decrease in the number of HIV/AIDS-related fatalities since 2002.

7. Mozambique

As of 2020, 2.1 million individuals in Mozambique have HIV, with an additional 150,000 newly infected persons. More than 60% of individuals in Mozambique are women, and young women (years 15-24) are almost twice as likely to get HIV as young men.

HIV-infected pregnant women may get antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent the transmission of the virus to their unborn children, which may have prevented thousands of new cases of HIV infection in children as a result.

8. Zambia

The HIV rate in Zambia is 11.10 percent, making it the eighth-highest in the world. In Zambia, where an estimated 1.5 million individuals live with HIV, it is the primary cause of mortality.

Since December 2021, 88 percent of those infected have received antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 75 percent of those infected are in a state of viral suppression.

People living with HIV have a far better life expectancy as a consequence. AIDS-related fatalities in Zambia are mostly caused by TB, which immunocompromised HIV patients are more likely to get than in other African nations.

Tuberculosis screening was performed on 88% of HIV-positive individuals in 2021.

9. Malawi

Malawi has the lowest HIV prevalence, at 8.1%, of any country on this list. In 2020, between 970,000 and 990,000 persons in Malawi were infected with HIV, with young people most at risk. Most new HIV infections in the United States occur among persons aged 15 to 24.

About 870,000 people with HIV were taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) as of June 2021, up from 80.9 percent a year earlier. There is a high HIV stigma in Malawi, which deters some would-be patients from seeking medical attention and treatment.

Despite this, the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals for Malawi are extremely near to being met.

10. Equatorial Guinea

It is possible that Equatorial Guinea’s 2020 HIV prevalence of 7.3 percent may not constitute an increase from the anticipated 6.2 percent in 2014. Like most of Africa, Equatorial Guinea’s medical system has long struggled with HIV detection and diagnosis.

Equatorial Guinea and other nations with a high prevalence of HIV have a large number of individuals who have not been tested, diagnosed, or informed about their infection status.

Also See: Healthiest Countries 2022

In light of this, it’s possible that Equatorial Guinea’s rising HIV statistics aren’t due to an increase in the virus’s prevalence but rather to better testing.

HIV/AIDS prevalence and death rates should continue to decline in the future years if the government implements comprehensive treatment programs that are both aggressive and thorough.

CountryHIV CasesYear of Data% Adults w/ HIVHIV/AIDS Deaths
Eswatini2000002020 est.0.26802400
Lesotho2800002020 est.0.21104700
Botswana3700002020 est.0.19905100
South Africa78000002020 est.0.191083000
Zimbabwe13000002020 est.0.119022000
Namibia2100002020 est.0.11603000
Mozambique21000002020 est.0.115038000
Zambia15000002020 est.0.111024000
Malawi9900002020 est.0.081012000
Equatorial Guinea680002020 est.0.07302300
Uganda14000002020 est.0.054022000
Tanzania17000002020 est.0.047032000
Kenya14000002020 est.0.042029000
Republic of the Congo1100002020 est.0.03306100
Cameroon5000002020 est.0.030014000
Gabon460002020 est.0.03001000
Guinea-Bissau370002020 est.0.03001500
Central African Republic880002020 est.0.02903200
Rwanda2200002020 est.0.02502500
South Sudan1800002020 est.0.02308900
Ivory Coast3800002020 est.0.021013000
Togo1100002020 est.0.02003000
Haiti1500002020 est.0.01902200
Angola3400002020 est.0.018016000
Gambia270002020 est.0.01801300
Ghana3500002020 est.0.017013000
Sierra Leone800002020 est.0.01503200
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines120020180.0150100
Guinea1100002020 est.0.01403300
Jamaica320002020 est.0.01401000
Nigeria17000002020 est.0.013049000
Guyana90002020 est.0.0130200
Russia10000002017 est.0.0120
Belize38002020 est.0.0120200
Bahamas47002020 est.0.0120200
Chad1100002020 est.0.01103000
Liberia350002020 est.0.01101300
Suriname52002020 est.0.0110200
Barbados27002019 est.0.0110100
Thailand5000002020 est.0.010012000
Ukraine2600002020 est.0.01003100
Burundi830002020 est.0.01001700
Panama310002020 est.0.0100500
Ethiopia6200002020 est.0.009013000
Mali1100002020 est.0.00904600
Benin750002020 est.0.00902000
Dominican Republic720002020 est.0.00901900
Papua New Guinea550002020 est.0.0090500
Moldova140002020 est.0.0080500
Estonia71002020 est.0.0080100
Djibouti68002020 est.0.0080500
DR Congo5100002020 est.0.007017000
Burkina Faso970002020 est.0.00703300
Trinidad and Tobago100002020 est.0.0070200
Brazil9300002020 est.0.006013000
Chile770002020 est.0.00601000
Saint Lucia20180.0060100
Venezuela1000002020 est.0.00504200
Cambodia750002020 est.0.00501200
Greece170002020 est.0.0050100
Portugal420002020 est.0.0050500
Belarus280002020 est.0.0050200
El Salvador250002020 est.0.00501000
Eritrea130002020 est.0.0050500
Saint Kitts and Nevis20180.0050100
Indonesia5400002020 est.0.004024000
Mexico3400002020 est.0.00404300
Colombia1800002020 est.0.00403000
Spain1500002020 est.0.00401000
Argentina1400002020 est.0.00401400
Malaysia920002020 est.0.00402000
Cuba330002020 est.0.0040500
Costa Rica160002020 est.0.0040500
Uruguay120002020 est.0.0040200
Vietnam2500002020 est.0.00303800
France1900002019 est.0.0030500
Peru910002020 est.0.00301000
Madagascar420002020 est.0.00301800
Kazakhstan350002020 est.0.0030500
Ecuador450002020 est.0.0030500
Senegal390002020 est.0.00301100
Laos150002020 est.0.0030500
Paraguay190002020 est.0.0030500
Mauritania85002020 est.0.0030500
Georgia91002020 est.0.0030100
Latvia56002019 est.0.0030100
Luxembourg12002018 est.0.0030100
Sao Tome and Principe20200.0030100
India23000002020 est.0.002069000
Pakistan2000002020 est.0.00208200
Philippines1200002020 est.0.00201600
Italy1400002020 est.0.00201000
Sudan490002020 est.0.00202300
Uzbekistan580002020 est.0.00201000
Niger310002020 est.0.00201100
Guatemala330002020 est.0.00201000
Netherlands240002020 est.0.0020100
Bolivia170002020 est.0.0020200
Honduras220002020 est.0.00201000
Sweden110002016 est.0.0020
Tajikistan140002020 est.0.0020500
Nicaragua120002020 est.0.0020500
Kyrgyzstan92002020 est.0.0020100
Singapore80002020 est.0.0020100
Ireland78002020 est.0.0020100
Armenia48002020 est.0.0020100
Fiji13002020 est.0.0020100
Germany930002020 est.0.0010500
Nepal300002020 est.0.00101000
Australia300002020 est.0.0010100
Romania190002020 est.0.0010500
Azerbaijan99002020 est.0.0010200
United Arab Emirates20200.0010100
Austria74002017 est.0.0010100
Denmark67002020 est.0.0010100
Norway58002018 est.0.0010100
Lithuania34002019 est.0.0010100
Cyprus2017 est.0.0010100
Bangladesh140002018 est.1000
Japan300002020 est.100
Egypt240002020 est.500
Iran540002020 est.3200
Algeria180002020 est.200
Afghanistan120002020 est.1000
Morocco220002020 est.500
Saudi Arabia120002020 est.200
Yemen110002020 est.500
Sri Lanka37002020 est.200
Somalia87002020 est.500
Tunisia45002020 est.200
Hungary37002018 est.100
Serbia33002020 est.100
Bulgaria33002019 est.100
Lebanon27002020 est.100
Slovakia12002018 est.100
New Zealand36002020 est.100
Croatia17002020 est.100
Albania14002020 est.100

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