Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Country 2022

In the atmosphere, a greenhouse gas (GHG) is a gas that traps heat. The moniker greenhouse gas comes from the fact that these gases mimic the properties of greenhouse glass. There is no way to stop sunlight from passing through, which causes heat on the Earth.




As a result, the temperature rises as the heat tries to rise and disperse, but it is blocked by the gases/glass and instead builds up. The greenhouse effect describes this phenomenon.

The absence of greenhouse gases would result in an average world temperature of 0 degrees Fahrenheit.

A surplus of greenhouse gases has been released into the atmosphere due to human activities, particularly certain agricultural practices and the combustion of fossil fuels. Unnatural global warming is mostly attributed to this.

The quantity of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere by nations throughout the globe varies greatly. Many factors contribute to a country’s total emissions, including its population, GDP, energy industry, etc.

The following are the top 10 countries in terms of annual greenhouse gas emissions (measured in millions of metric tonnes):*




  1. China — 9,877
  2. United States — 4,745
  3. India — 2,310
  4. Russia — 1,640
  5. Japan — 1,056
  6. Germany — 644
  7. South Korea — 586
  8. Iran — 583
  9. Canada — 571
  10. Saudi Arabia — 495

*The whole data set is shown in the table after the text.

An all-time high of 36.3 billion metric tonnes (36.3 Gt) of carbon dioxide was reported in 2021 by the International Energy Agency.

The COVID-19-related lockdowns, which restricted the usage of motor vehicles, were substantially responsible for reducing 9 per cent in total greenhouse gas emissions from 2019 to 2020. (and, in turn, greatly reduced the emission of GHGs in vehicle exhaust).

Early data, on the other hand, suggests that global GHG emissions will not only rise in 2021 but will also reach their highest level ever. Coal usage and other energy sources (wind, hydro, solar, etc.) reached historic highs in 2021.




Major sources of greenhouse gases

Gas% of emissions in U.S. 2020 (EPA)
Carbon Dioxide (CO₂)78.8%
Methane (CH₄)10.9%
Nitrous Oxide (N₂O)7.1%
Fluorinated Gases3.2%

In addition to CO2, CH4, N2O, and fluorinated gases, including hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride, and nitrogen trifluoride, humans also produce several other greenhouse gases.

Although water vapour and ozone (O3) are greenhouse gases, the advantages they provide much exceed the risks they pose.

The major sources of greenhouse gas emissions, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are power and heat generation (25%), agriculture, forestry, and other land use (24%), industry (21%), and transportation (14%).




In 2020, the following will be the primary U.S. sources of greenhouse gas emissions:

Energy Sector% of GHGs contributed
Transportation (gasoline, diesel, etc)27%
Electricity generation (coal, natural gas)25%
Industry (manufacture of metals, cement, chemicals)24%
Agriculture (livestock, non-organic farming & processing)11%
Commercial (heating, cooking)7%
Residential (heating, cooking)6%

Carbon dioxide (CO₂)




In terms of greenhouse gas concentrations, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent. CO2 accounts for roughly 45 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions from human activity.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is largely produced by the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) in automobiles and power plants. Solid trash, biological materials, and certain chemical processes are also potential additional sources.

Global carbon dioxide emissions have grown by 90 per cent since 1970, with emissions from fossil fuel burning and industrial activities accounting for around 78 per cent of the overall greenhouse gas emissions increase.

In 2020, the following will be the primary U.S. sources of Carbon Dioxide Emissions:




Energy Sector% of CO₂ contributed
Transportation (gasoline, diesel, etc)33%
Electricity generation (coal, natural gas)31%
Industry (manufacture of metals, cement, chemicals)16%
Residential and Commercial (heating, cooking)12%
Other8%

Methane (CH₄)

As a result of its lower volume, methane has a far bigger influence on Earth’s atmosphere and is about 25 times more harmful than carbon dioxide over a century.

Wetlands and human activity (35-50 per cent) contribute to methane emission into the atmosphere (50-65 per cent).

Natural gas production, coal mining, wastewater treatment, and landfills are all examples of human-created methane sources. Livestock production is perhaps the most well-known source of atmospheric methane.

Because of the enormous magnitude of the global meat industry, methane emissions from animal waste and farts are a significant problem.




In 2020, the following will be the primary U.S. sources of Methane Emissions:

Energy Sector% of CO₂ contributed
Natural Gas and Petroleum Production32%
Enteric Fermentation (animal flatulence)27%
Landfills (decay of organic matter)17%
Manure Management9%
Coal Mining6%
Other9%

Nitrous oxide (N₂O)

Nitrous oxide is a significant contributor to global warming because of its 300-fold influence on the atmosphere compared to carbon dioxide. Soil management methods, including fertiliser application, account for 74% of its release.

Nitrogen dioxide is also emitted during the manufacture of chemicals, fossil fuel burning, and wastewater treatment. A natural nitrogen cycle includes it as well.

Fluorinated gases

Chemical and industrial operations produce fluorinated gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride, & nitrogen trifluoride, practically exclusively.

Most of the fluorinated gases discharged into the atmosphere are used in industrial applications such as refrigerants, aerosol propellants and solvents, fire retardants and foam blowing agents.

Fluorinated gases impact 10,000 to 22,800 times greater than that of carbon dioxide, although they are present in very tiny concentrations in the atmosphere.




Contributions to greenhouse gases all over the world

China

In 2019, China emitted 9,877 megatons (9,877 million tonnes) of GHGs, the most of any nation globally.

As a result, the country’s economic expansion has been mostly fueled by coal, which emits up to twice as much carbon dioxide as other fossil fuels. The industrial sector in China consumes the majority of the world’s coal.

Manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and construction account for approximately 62.5 per cent of China’s energy consumption.

China’s coal consumption also increased in 2021 because of a rise in natural gas costs and a 10% increase in energy demand (driven by the post-pandemic economic recovery). This led to an increasing dependence on coal-powered electrical facilities.

United States

In 2019, the United States produced 4,745 megatons of GHGs, making it the second-largest CO2 emitter. Electric power sector emissions declined by 27 per cent between 2005 and 2017 due to increasing renewable energy usage, a move from coal to natural gas, and a levelling of electricity demand.

In 2020, transportation accounted for 27% of total emissions, with energy accounting for 25% of emissions and industry contributing the remaining 5%.




India

More than 1.4 billion people live in India, the second-largest population in the world and the third-largest contributor to carbon dioxide emissions.

The country’s biggest sources of emissions include cattle, coal power stations, and rice fields. Emissions will fall by 33-35 per cent by 2030 compared with 2005 levels.

Russia and Japan

Russia emitted 1,640 megatons of carbon dioxide in 2019, making it the fourth-largest contributor to CO2 emissions. While the United States emits more than any other country, Russia’s per-capita emissions of 10.8 tonnes in 2020 are the highest in the world (13.0).

The energy sector in Russia is responsible for the vast majority of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions (78.9%), with electricity and heat generation for the general public accounting for the bulk of the remainder.

Fifth, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, Japan is the only country to contribute more than 1,000 megatons (1,056 megatons) every year.




Only in Japan are new coal-fired power plants currently being built. As a result of Japan’s lack of strong climate change targets, the international community has criticised and pressured the country.

South Korea and Germany

In 2019, Germany released 644 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide, a 6.3% decrease in greenhouse gas emissions from the year before.

By closing coal-fired power facilities, growing wind and solar energy, and effectively reforming EU carbon trading, Germany has cut its emissions by 35.7 per cent since 1990. By 2030, Germany aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 55% and operate on 80% renewable energy sources.

South Korea cut its CO2 emissions to 586 million tonnes in 2019 after releasing a record 605.9 million tonnes in 2018. South Korea’s commitment to greening its energy platform is decommissioning obsolete and inefficient power plants and moving to newer and more efficient systems, including the growing hydrogen sector.

Iran, Canada, and Saudi Arabia

2019 saw 583 million tonnes of CO2 emitted by the Iranian government, ranking 8th in the world. Iranian CO2 emissions grew at around 5 per cent each year between 1990 and 2018. Iran’s carbon emissions are mostly a result of the country’s use of natural gas and oil.




Despite its abundant oil and gas reserves, Iran still has a lot of room for growth in renewable energy, such as solar electricity. An increase in economic sanctions and a lack of international commerce have made it difficult for Iran to meet its goal of cutting carbon emissions by 4 per cent by 2030.

In 2019, Canada pumped out 571 million tonnes of CO2. Despite its extensive hydroelectric dams and nuclear power plants, which don’t use fossil fuels to generate energy, Canada is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe.

About 45 per cent of Canada’s emissions come from the oil and gas industry, with transportation generating another 28 per cent of the country’s emissions.

Even though Canada’s GDP has quadrupled since 1990 and its population has expanded by 6 million, its total greenhouse gas emissions have increased by less than 30 per cent, and per-capita emissions have decreased.

In 2019, Saudi Arabia ranked tenth in the world for total CO2 emissions, at 495 million metric tonnes. As a result of the Saudi Arabian economy’s heavy reliance on oil, the state-owned Saudi Aramco has been a major source of carbon dioxide emissions since the 1960s.

Also See: Greenest Countries 2022

As a result of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns, oil demand dropped by a large amount, making it evident that Saudi Arabia has to diversify its economy away from oil for environmental and financial reasons. As with other nations, Saudi Arabia has enormous solar power generation potential.




CountryCO2 emissions 2019 (Mt)CO2 per capita 2019 (tons)Total GHG emissions 2018 (kilotons)CO2 emissions 2020 (Mt)CO2 per capita 2020 (tons)
China9876.50007.100012355240
United States4744.500014.400060236204285.900013
India23101.70003374990
Russia1640.300011.400025434001555.900010.8000
Japan1056.20008.400011867701024.10008.2000
Germany644.10007.8000806090585.30007
South Korea585.700011.3000718880570.700011
Iran583.50007828280
Indonesia583.40002.2000969580626.60002.3000
Canada57115.2000724930523.200013.8000
Saudi Arabia495.200014.5000638120
South Africa433.60007.4000513440
Mexico419.40003.30006798803813
Brazil41121032640385.70001.8000
Australia380.70001561538037614.6000
Turkey366.40004.4000502520366.10004.4000
United Kingdom342.20005.1000452080306.30004.6000
Italy309.30005.1000399600280.40004.7000
France293.90004.4000423350258.20003.8000
Poland287.40007.5000389650267.60007
Vietnam282.30002.9000376530
Taiwan25610.8000248.500010.4000
Thailand251.40003.6000416950
Malaysia236.60007.4000306670
Spain230.90004.9000326940194.80004.1000
Egypt225.50002.3000329220
Kazakhstan20511.1000274220
United Arab Emirates17818.2000263240
Pakistan174.50000.8000431220
Ukraine170.40003.8000274510162.40003.7000
Argentina162.20003.60003656501533.4000
Netherlands146.30008.4000178640134.70007.7000
Algeria142.40003.3000218910
Iraq138.20003.5000215690
Philippines135.30001.3000232340
Uzbekistan111.80003.3000235510
Czech Republic94.30008.800012284084.30007.9000
Nigeria920.5000311450
Chile90.50004.800010959079.70004.1000
Belgium90.20007.900010875083.30007.2000
Venezuela90.10003.2000233920
Kuwait89.400021.3000112970
Bangladesh89.30000.5000198970
Qatar86.900030.700099830
Colombia74.90001.500018410070.40001.4000
Romania70.10003.600010901066.70003.5000
Turkmenistan69.200011.7000125080
Oman6913.900082300
Morocco65.90001.80009429062.40001.7000
Austria637.10007498057.30006.4000
Israel60.90006.700087830586.3000
Greece56.60005.30008475046.60004.4000
Belarus55.4000598814055.400059
North Korea53.40002.100041910
Peru52.20001.600096280
Singapore47.40008.300066640
Hong Kong46.20005.700035.10004.7000
Libya45.90006.8000103040
Hungary45.40004.60006092043.60004.5000
Serbia45.10006.50006260045.50006.6000
Portugal42.40004.10006682037.30003.6000
Finland40.10007.30005449035.70006.5000
Bulgaria385.50005333034.40005
Switzerland35.60004.20004602034.10004
Ecuador35.4000265680
Myanmar35.10000.7000119650
Norway34.90006.50004734036.10006.7000
Azerbaijan34.10003.40008026033.40003.3000
Ireland33.90006.90006509031.60006.4000
Sweden33.70003.30004635032.10003.1000
New Zealand33.40006.70008133033.10006.5000
Bahrain32.600019.900048950
Slovakia29.70005.40003993026.50004.9000
Denmark28.40004.90004587025.60004.4000
Tunisia26.20002.200041100
Lebanon25.50003.700034350
Dominican Republic25.20002.400039060
Cuba25.20002.200041860
Syria23.60001.400046320
Jordan22.80002.300035810
Mongolia22.7000752620
Sri Lanka22.7000135240
Bolivia20.90001.800056870
Bosnia and Herzegovina20.70006.30002719022.40006.8000
Kenya20.10000.400078830
Angola18.80000.600079730
Sudan18.50000.4000109630
Ghana18.20000.60004450019.60000.6000
Guatemala17.80001.100035400
Trinidad and Tobago16.600011.900022900
Croatia15.30003.80002255014.40003.5000
Ethiopia14.80000.1000172230
Slovenia13.10006.30001717011.80005.6000
Cambodia12.90000.800037460
Panama12.6000318010
Lithuania11.200041884010.80003.9000
Zimbabwe11.10000.800031380
Ivory Coast10.70000.400022900
Tanzania10.70000.2000105380
Nepal100.400051240
Estonia9.90007.5000186108.60006.5000
United States Virgin Islands9.60000.3000
Honduras9.5000122400
Georgia9.30002.5000169008.80002.4000
Kyrgyzstan9.30001.400018120
Luxembourg9.100014.6000102207.500011.9000
Senegal8.50000.500029990
Moldova8.30003.100013180103.8000
Jamaica8.10002.700010020
North Macedonia83.8000105107.20003.5000
Paraguay7.80001.100049170
Costa Rica7.50001.500015810
Tajikistan7.50000.800015210
Botswana7.30003.200016120
Benin7.10000.6000173807.50000.6000
Latvia73.7000116606.40003.4000
Brunei6.600015.200016620
Mozambique6.60000.200035040
Cameroon6.50000.300089050
Cyprus6.40007.300086005.90006.8000
Uruguay6.20001.8000361606.40001.8000
Armenia5.9000293606.40002.2000
Zambia5.70000.300040670
Nicaragua4.90000.700019070
Albania4.10001.4000100803.40001.2000
Namibia3.80001.500011930
Mauritius3.70003.300067404.20002.9000
Republic of the Congo3.70000.70009370
Haiti3.20000.30009930
Suriname2.60004.50003780
Montenegro2.60004.20003800
Gabon2.50001.10007460
Curacao2.200013.7000
DR Congo2.2000058700
Niger2.10000.100045050
Malta1.70003.300020401.60003
South Sudan1.70000.200058660
Iceland1.60004.500034401.50004
Togo1.50000.20008420
Eritrea0.80000.20007480
Nauru80
Tuvalu30
Palau320
Liechtenstein180
Saint Kitts and Nevis370
Marshall Islands240
Dominica240
Andorra590
Seychelles780
Antigua and Barbuda1210
Tonga350
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines370
Grenada2360
Micronesia270
Kiribati110
Saint Lucia740
Samoa690
Sao Tome and Principe190
Barbados3790
Vanuatu870
Belize1560
Maldives2380
Solomon Islands940
Bhutan2470
Guyana5040
Comoros590
Fiji2820
Djibouti1480
Eswatini3120
Timor-Leste6190
Equatorial Guinea19270
Guinea-Bissau2800
Lesotho5850
Mauritania14080
Central African Republic55680
Liberia9200
El Salvador12350
Laos29270
Sierra Leone7190
Papua New Guinea22970
Burundi5520
Rwanda6170
Guinea28890
Somalia26970
Chad80680
Malawi18320
Mali43740
Burkina Faso30850
Madagascar30570
Yemen21760
Afghanistan98920
Uganda54870




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